something that has internal origin. In response to this theory, Andre Gunder Frank in propounded his. “dependency theory which saw the world’s nations as. J Vol. XIV No. 3 September Dependency Theory: A Review Article. James L. Dietz. Both Fernando Henrique Cardoso and Andre Gunder Frank have been. In response to this theory, Andre Gunder Frank in propounded his “ dependency theory which saw the world’s nations as divided into a.

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Skip to main content. Criticisms of Dependency Theory 1. On the other hand, Frank believes that holding such views creates numerous misconceptions and prevents an accurate view of contemporary development from emerging.

Bilateral aid refers to the flow of resources from one country to another — most usually in the form of loans but also as weapons, medicines and human expertise. This postulates a third category of countries, the semi-peripheryintermediate between the core and periphery.

How Europe underdeveloped Africa. The former ideological head of the Blekingegade Gang and political activist Torkil Lauesen argues in his book The Global Perspective that political theory and practice stemming from dependency theory are more relevant than ever. Here, one can be part of the system, and adopt national economic policies to being about economic growth such as Import substitution industrialisation where industrialisation produces consumer goods that would normally be imported from abroad, as successfully adopted by many South American countries.

Dependency theory

They were led to the position that dependency is not a relation between commodity exporters and industrialised countries, but between countries with different degrees of industrialisation.

For dependency theory in linguistics, see Dependency grammar. Moreover, many LDCs find it difficult to achieve full economic independence because many are overdependent on either one or two primary products or Western demand for those products. Matthew Rose Aug 15, depenfency Comments.

The importance of multinational corporations and state promotion of technology were emphasised by the Latin American Structuralists. Additionally, Frank rejects the development belief promoted by Rostow that an accurate way to explain development is to look at the past experiences of countries in North America and Europe. Social Transformation and Human Governance. For dependency theory in media, see Media system dependency theory.

Western nations further limit the export earnings of LDCs by setting the prices for many LDC products and setting tariffs and quotas which tax or limit LDC products entering the First World, especially manufactured products.

Debt contributes to high infant-mortality rates and low life-expectancy because the money spent servicing debt could be spent on improving the infrastructure of LDCs, especially health and education. Following colonialism, many of the ex-colonies were dependent for their export earnings on primary products, mostly agricultural cash crops such as Coffee or Tea which have very little value in themselves — It is the processing of those raw materials which adds value to them, and the processing takes place mainly in the West.


According to Frank, developed nations actually fear the development of poorer countries because their development threatens the dominance and prosperity of the West. Modernisation theorists would argue against the view that Isolation and communist revolution is an effective path to development, given the well-known failings of communism in Russia and Eastern Europe.

Andre Gunder Frank & Dependency Theory | Our Politics

The sine qua non of the dependency relationship is not the difference in technological sophistication, as traditional dependency theorists believe, but rather the difference in financial strength between core and peripheral countries—particularly the inability of peripheral countries to borrow in their own currency. Colonialism destroyed local economies which were self-sufficient and independent and replaced them with plantation mono-crop economies which were geared up to export one product to the mother country.

It was precisely this process that Ghandi resisted as the leading figure of the Indian Independence movement. It is argued that, at this stage, the role of unequal exchange in the entire relationship of dependency cannot be underestimated.

Tausch, [12] based on works of Amin from tolists the following main characteristics of periphery capitalism:.

The products manufactured through industrialisation eventually made their way into the markets of developing countries, which further undermined local economies, as well as the capacity for these countries to develop on their own terms. Thinking critically about global issues, The core nations are able to exploit the peripheral nations because of their superior economic and military power. It is a central contention of dependency theory that poor states are impoverished and rich ones enriched by the way poor states are integrated into the ” world system “.

In the meantime, the interest builds up and can eventually outstrip the initial loan. This view argues that dependency is not just a phase, but rather a permanent position. The neo-Marxist dependency theory rejects the view that the people of LDCs are responsible for the failure of their societies to develop.

For example, it is estimated that for every British pound lent to LDCs, 70 pence is spent in the UK or spent on projects which primarily employ expertise from the donor country.

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According to Frank the main period of colonial expansion was from to when European powers, with Britain to the fore, used their superior naval and military technology to conquer and colonise most of the rest of the world.


Reflections on Imperialism and Resistance.

For Frank, development and under-development are two sides of a world process by which the First World developed at the expense of the LDCs.

Development depends on a population’s producing more than it needs for bare subsistence a surplus. Modernization, Dependency, and World-Systems Theory. Therefore, any over-production or fall in Western demand can have a severe effect upon LDC economies.

He writes about political trends and demographics, the role of the media in politics, comparative politics, political theory, and the domestic and international political economy. Isolationas in the example of China from about towhich is now successfully emerging as a global economic superpower having isolated itself from the West for the past 4 decades. Matt is also interested in history, philosophy, comparative religion, and record collecting.

As a case study, Frank focuses on the economy of Brazil and describes how its capital, Sao Paulo, became one of the largest and most developed industrial hubs in Latin America. Modern constructivism Post-modern constructivism Feminist constructivism.

theorry Implications from a Global Model”. He argues that factors such as civil wars, ethnic tensions and being land-locked with poor neighbours are correlated with underdevelopment.

Others have been accused of environmental destruction and pollution and playing a major role in the eviction of native peoples from their land. International ethics Historical sociology Regime theory State cartel theory Geopolitics.

Such poor countries are locked into a system that is almost impossible for them to escape. This meant that whole populations had effectively gone from growing their own food and producing their own goods, to earning wages from growing and harvesting sugar, tea, or coffee for export back to Europe.

Many leaders in African countries adopted dependency theory, arguing that and developing political movements that aimed to liberate Africa from western exploitation, stressing nationalism rather than neo-colonialism. Other approaches International ethics Historical sociology Regime theory State cartel theory Geopolitics. Allen Oxford University Press Canada”. The improvement of India ‘s economy after it moved from state-controlled business to open trade is one of the most often cited see also economy of IndiaThe Commanding Heights.

Baran noted two predominant kinds of economic activity in poor countries. Kenya was rewarded with aid for providing US forces with port frnak during the Gulf War.