In this article we will discuss about the process of androgenesis, explained with the Success of anther culture is highly dependent on the genotype of the plant. The success of androgenesis dependent on the variety used, the growth . Razdan M.K, An introduction to plant tissue culture, ().Oxford. In vitro androgenesis is an important component of plant biotechnology when the pollen .. In: Korea-China Plant Tissue Culture Symposium, Academia Sinica.

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It is the vegetative cell that undergoes further divisions to form callus or embryo.

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This property can be exploited in some cases to obtain the homozygous plant. Whenever a liquid medium is used, the ovaries are placed on a filter paper or allowed to float over the medium with pedicel inserted through filter paper. Some workers choose a breeding approach for improvement of genotype before they are used in androgenesis. These media in fact are the same as used in plant cell and tissue cultures. The uninucleate microspores divide unequally forming vegetative and generative cell.

In general, the production of haploids is better in light. The success of anther or pollen culture largely depends on the genotype of the donor plant. The pollen can be extracted by pressing and squeezing the anthers with a glass rod against the sides of a beaker.

There are many ways of colchicine treatment to achieve diploidization for production of homozygous plants. The major limitation is that the plants not only originate from pollen but also from other parts of anther.

It is therefore important to select only highly responsive genotypes. The procedure involves growing a small segment of haploid tisaue stem in a suitable medium supplemented with growth regulators auxin and cytokinin. The Indian scientists Cuha and Maheswari reported the direct development of haploid embryos and plantlets from microspores of Datura innoxia by the cultures of excised anthers.

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Thus, anther cultures are reasonably efficient for haploid production. Anther walls act as conditioning factors and promote culture growth. There are two approaches for the production of haploid plants. Here’s how it works: The success of another culture and androgenesis is also dependent on the composition of the medium.

Process of Androgenesis (With Diagram) | Biotechnology

This is a androgenesos and answer forum for students, teachers and general visitors for exchanging articles, answers and notes. Minerals and growth regulators play important roles on embryogenesis but it totally depends on the endogenous level of hormones. Production of gynogenic haploids is particularly useful in plants with male sterile genotype. Ultra violet rays or X-rays may be used to induce chromosomal breakage and their subsequent elimination to produce haploids. The above androgenesls have been used for the development of haploids of maize.

Haploid plants are of great significance for the production of homozygous lines homozygous plants and for the improvement of plants in plant breeding programmes.

Production of Haploid Plants (With Diagram)

The process of apomixis or parthenogenesis development of embryo from an unfertilized egg is responsible for the spontaneous natural production of haploids. The procedure for gynogenic haploid production is briefly described. Anthers at a very young stage with cultuure mother cells or tetrads and late stage with bi-nucleate microspores are usually not suitable for androgenesis. The vegetative cell does not divide, e.

In androgenesis, the male gametophyte microspore or immature pollen produces haploid plant. The importance of haploids in the field of plant breeding and genetics was realised long ago. The young plantlets are directly treated with colchicine solution, washed thoroughly and replanted.


Injured anthers should not be used in cultures as they result in callusing of anther wall tissue. Colchicine is very widely used for diploidization of homologous chromosomes. If they are at the correct stage, each anther is gently separated from the filament and the intact anthers are inoculated on a nutrient medium.

This induces callus formation followed by differentiation.

Process of Androgenesis (With Diagram) | Biotechnology

As the anthers proliferate, they produce callus which later forms an embryo and then a haploid plant Fig. There are iin, certain plants which can grow well in both light and dark. Sucrose, nitrate, ammonium salts, amino acids and minerals are essential for androgenesis. This results in homozygous plants. These pollen are cultured on a solid or liquid medium.

There are four different pathways to form the multicellular condition of pollen from the unicellular pollen Fig. The variation in response of anthers from plants grown under different environmental conditions may be due to the differences in endogenous level of growth regulators. The generative pkant, on the other hand, anrdogenesis after one or two divisions—e. The use of pesticides should be avoided at least weeks preceding sampling. Morphological approach, however, is not as effective as genetic approach.

There are mainly two approaches for diploidization— colchicine treatment and endomitosis. Genetic markers are widely used for the specific identification of haploids. The plants grown under best natural environmental conditions light, temperature, nutrition, CO 2 etc. The plants so produced are referred to as gynogenic haploids.