Malar J. Nov 26;17(1) doi: /sy. Aspidosperma pyrifolium, a medicinal plant from the Brazilian caatinga, displays a high. Aspidosperma pyrifolium Has Anti-Inflammatory Properties: An Experimental Study in Mice with Peritonitis Induced by Tityus serrulatus Venom or Carrageenan. Find technical and marketing information for lesser-used tropical timber species, LUS. Learn more on our Jitichuriqui (Aspidosperma pyrifolium) page.

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Scorpions of the genus Tityus are responsible for the majority of envenomation in Brazil, the Tityus serrulatus species being the most common and dangerous in South America.

Aspidosperma pyrifolium – Wikispecies

In this approach, we have investigated the ability of the aqueous extract from the leaves of Aspidosperma pyrifolium in reducing carrageenan-induced inflammation and the inflammation induced by T. We also evaluated the cytotoxic effects of this extract, using the 3- 4,5-dimethythiazolyl -2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium MTT assay and the results revealed that the extract is safe. For in vivo studies in carrageenan-induced peritonitis model, mice received extracts, dexamethasone, rutin or saline, before administration of carrageenan.

For venom-induced inflammation model, animals received T. The extract and rutin showed a reduction in the cell migration into the peritoneal cavity, and in the same way the envenomated animals also showed reduction of edema, inflammatory cell infiltration and vasodilation in lungs.

This is an original study revealing the potential action of A. The scorpion genus Tityus is responsible for the majority of scorpion envenomation in Brazil, and, in particular, the species Tityus serrulatus Buthidae is the most common and harmful.

In South America, this species is the most dangerous due to the high toxicity of its venom. The envenomation induced by scorpions of the genus Tityus spp. The pathogenesis of this edema is very complex, therefore, envenomation by this species can be severe, and deaths are often caused by acute pulmonary edema [ 56 ]. Others symptoms displayed by victims of scorpion accidents are fever, restlessness, excessive salivation, lacrimation, increased gastrointestinal motility, respiratory, cardiac arrhythmias, acute pulmonary inflammation, hypertension followed by hypotension, heart failure, and cardiogenic shock.

In part, these clinical manifestations may be observed by the presence of neurotoxic components in the venom which interact with sodium and potassium channels in nerve endings [ 78 ]. Antivenom therapy is the treatment of choice for severe cases of envenomation by scorpion [ 9 ].

The administration of antivenom should occur as soon as possible so there is the neutralization of systemic effects caused by envenomation.

Not all victims have access to this kind of treatment because they live in conditions where medical help is not readily available. Some studies suggest that it is possible to use a plant extract or an herbal drug as an alternative treatment for envenomation by venomous animals, in an aspidospeerma to minimize the effects of local inflammatory poison [ 1011 pyrifolum, 12 ].

Recent studies by our group have demonstrated the beneficial effect of the use of plant extracts in the local treatment of snakebite [ 13 ], but there are few studies exhibiting the effectiveness of such treatment in envenomation induced by scorpion sting [ 10141516 ].

The Apocynaceae family has considerable economic and medicinal importance [ 1718 ]. Popular reports in farms in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, described that the old-aged-people used the species for the treatment of dizziness, urinary disorders, wound healing and inflammation. On Asclepiadoideae plants, sapidosperma are a subfamily of Apocynaceae, phytochemical studies verified the presence of phenolic compounds, as well as the flavonoids quercetin, rutin and isorhamnetin [ 2122 ].

In the current study, mainly the presence pyrlfolium flavonoids and phenolic acids were investigated. The flavonoid rutin occurs naturally in various plant species and is a potent antioxidant with a wide spectrum of applications and has been a subject of interest due to its various pharmacological activities, in particular its anti-inflammatory activity [ 23 aapidosperma, 2425262728 ].

There are so far no studies focusing on A. The aim of this approach was to evaluate in vivo the ability of the aqueous extract of A. The UV spectra of peaks unidentified in the chromatogram UV nm suggest the presence of phenolic acids before 25 aspidospdrma and flavonoids after the peak of rutin at 41 min.


The analysis shows one peak aspodosperma time: The separation was performed using a Reverse Phase Luna C column 4. The solvent system used was a gradient of 0. Detection at nm. LC-DAD-MS analyses were performed to determine the molar mass of the compounds under investigation conducted by qualitative liquid chromatography profile.

Dried Botanical ID

The Mass bank database Available online: Compounds 67 and 8 correspond to chlorogenic acid isomers, n -chlogenic, crypto-chlorogenic and iso-chlorogenic acid, respectively. Both exhibit similar mass spectrum but disagree with the retention time [ 29 ].

In isomers compounds 12 and 13it is not possible to identify the position of caffeic acid residues. The cell viability of the 3T3 cells was analyzed after 48 and 72 h of incubation with aqueous extract of A.

The degree of viability was high for all concentrations tested, except for concentration of the 1. Effects of aqueous extracts from the leaves of Aspidosperma pyrifolium on 3T3 cell lines at concentrations from 0. Aqueous extract of A.

The effect of rutin on the cell count was equivalent to the effect of dexamethasone treatment 0. Table 1 summarizes the anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract and rutin in carrageenan-induced peritonitis model.

Effect of aqueous extracts from the leaves of Aspidosperma pyrifolium and rutin on inflammation in carrageenan-induced peritonitis model. Dexamethasone Dexa at the dose of 0.

After four hours, the peritoneal wash was performed with PBS and the number of cells was determined using a Neubauer chamber. Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract AE from the leaves of Aspidosperma pyrifolium and rutin against carrageenan-induced peritonitis model. Figure 4 A shows that the dose of 7. In turn, Figure 4 B reveals that the time of choice for euthanizing the animals was 6 h after envenomation, due to increased cell migration at that time-point.

Effect of dose and time-kinetics of Tityus serrulatus venom-induced inflammation. Effect of venom dose on inflammatory response in envenomation-induced peritonitis model in mice. After six hours, mice were euthanized and peritoneal wash and total cell counts were performed A.

Time-kinetics of VTs-induced inflammation and of rutin treatment on the envenomation-induced peritonitis model in mice. Peritoneal wash and total cell counts were performed at indicated time-points after envenomation B. Groups envenomated and treated i. The peritoneal cell infiltration was analyzed after 6 h. Table 2 summarizes the anti-inflammatory activity of rutin and aqueous extract and rutin in venom-induced peritonitis model.

Anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous extract from the leaves of Aspidosperma pyrifolium and rutin on VTs-induced peritonitis model. Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract AE from the leaves of Aspidosperma pyrifolium and rutin against Tityus serrulatus venom-induced peritonitis model.

Edema and vascular ectasia were observed in the lung tissues of envenomed mice Figure 6 B.

When compared with the saline group Figure 6 Athe lung tissues of envenomed mice presented a dense inflammation in the perivascular and peribronchiolar areas, and thickened interstitial space alveoli walls due to intense inflammation. In the group treated with serum arachnid antivenom, the number of inflammatory cells surrounding the bronchi and bronchioles and the alveolar wall thickness presented a similar histomorphological appearance as the saline group.

Furthermore, vascular ectasia and edema were also similar between the control group and the SAAV-treated group Figure 6 C. The groups treated with rutin at the dose 2. Effects of aqueous extract from the leaves of Aspidosperma pyrifolium and rutin in lung histopathologic changes in VTs-induced peritonitis model. A saline intraperitoneal and saline intravenous ; B VTs intraperitoneal and saline intravenous ; and C — H animals treated intravenous with: The present study was conducted to evaluate the protective ability of aqueous extract from the leaves of Aspidosperma pyrifolium against inflammation induced by carrageenan and Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom.

Previous studies of chemical composition of A. Rutin, one of the major compounds, and seven other phenolic derivatives, namely neo-chlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid isomer n -chlogenic, crypto-chlorogenic and iso-chlorogenic acidisorhamnetin O -rutinoside, di- O -caffeoylquinic acid and isomer of the di- O -caffeoylquinic acid, were identified by LC-DAD-MS.

The presence of rutin was confirmed by comparison with reference standard data. These compounds are polyphenolic compounds that occur naturally in various plant species.

Aspidosperma pyrifolium Images

The rutin show numerous interesting biological activities, for example, antioxidant capacity, anti-inflammatory action and stimulation of the immune system [ 2324 ]. To evaluate the cell viability effect of aqueous extracts of A.


The data suggest that the doses of A. Further assays should be done to verify pyrifoliuum the extract may present cytotoxic activity against tumor cells, as observed in Himatanthus drasticusa medicinal plant from the same family, of which the uses in traditional medicine are supported by reports of its uses in cancer treatment, as an anti-inflammatory medication, and to stimulate the immune system [ 32 ]. Previous studies evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of plants in carrageenan-induced peritonitis assay in murine model, with the aim of assessing the activity of isolated compounds [ 2728 ].

This model is a well-characterized experimental model of acute inflammation, largely employed to evaluate new anti-inflammatory aspidospedma focusing on quantify or analyze peritoneal vascular permeability and cellular migration as well as changes in other inflammatory parameters [ 33343536 ]. Carrageenan is a standard phlogistic agent, which induces inflammatory responses, such as infiltration of inflammatory cells, release of inflammatory mediators, increase in capillary permeability and peritonitis [ 3738 ].

Leukocytes are involved in organism defense, and their migration into the tissue is a crucial process during host response against microorganism infections and pyyrifolium agents [ 33 ]. The effect of A. The carrageenan-induced peritonitis resulted in an increase in total number of cells that migrated into the peritoneal pyriolium, and was observed aspiddosperma anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous extracts of A.

These findings corroborate previous studies demonstrating that anti-inflammatory effect is a common property of plants from the Apocynaceae family [ 173239 ].

Envenomation by scorpion of genus Tityus spp. The toxicity of the venom can be related to the age of individuals and their body weight; children have lower body weight when compared to adults, and are thus pyrioflium responsive to the envenomation [ 340 ]. Several mechanisms are involved in the systemic manifestations caused by the venom of T. Qspidosperma changes have been implicated in the severity of envenoming [ 15164041 ].

In this study, the effect of A. These results are in agreement with previous asppidosperma, which assessed the anti-inflammatory activity of plants from Apocynaceae family aslidosperma T. Here, we also evaluated the effect of treatment with the component rutin on acute inflammatory response in mice, four aspidosperka after carrageenan injection in the peritoneal cavity of the animals, as well as its anti-inflammatory effect on mice six hours after injection of VTs in the peritoneal cavity.

The main results confirmed its anti-inflammatory effect in two models of aspidlsperma at all doses tested 2, 2. Rutin is considered a potent antioxidant with a wide range of applications and has been a subject of interest due to its various pharmacological activities, in particular its anti-inflammatory activity, as well as improvements in strength and permeability of lymphatic and venous vessels walls [ 24252642 ].

In our study, we observed that rutin is a one of the components of AE involved in pharmacological effect observed in vivo models tested. The venom of the scorpion T.

The axpidosperma of such edema is very complex; envenoming by this species can be severe, and lead to death caused by acute pulmonary edema [ 56 ]. In the model used in this study, histological analyses of the lung were well in agreement with peritoneal cell counts aspidospetma, with a significant reduction of inflammation induced by VTs, and inhibition of the migration of inflammatory cells to the lungs by A.

This is the first study focusing on the ability of rutin and aqueous extracts of A.

It was found that the treatment with rutin and aqueous extracts decreased the cell inflammation and yielded histological findings similar to the control group and the SAAV-treated group, corroborating the results of peritoneal infiltration shown in the present study. The leaves were washed, dried at room temperature, and milled. The dried and ground leaves, which were left in contact with boiling water pyrkfolium 15 min, were extracted by decoction in a 1: The analyses of AE A.

The flow rate was kept constant at 1.