This standard is issued under the fixed designation C ; the number immediately 1 This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C09 on. All the Controls products ASTM C standard. Enter now!. Originally approved in Last previous edition approved in as C – 05a. 2 For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website,

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Photo provided by Frank Bowen. More than a century ago, it was noticed that concrete could deteriorate from seawater and freezing weather cycles.

ASTM C1260 – 14

This is a result of a number of sequential reactions. A petrographic examination of aggregate will give a comprehensive description of the aggregate source and quantify the various rock and mineral constituents present. C1620 atoms lose the electron, or electrons, in their highest energy level and become positively charged ions.

Eventually, the tensile stresses caused by the increase in volume exceed the tensile strength of the concrete, causing cracks.

Cracking usually appears in areas with a frequent supply ast, moisture. Lithium compounds have also been used, but they may be cost-prohibitive and limited in availability. This document is currently not available here. Overall, ASR is characterized primarily by four main features: The results show that mortar-bar expansion was promoted with increased cement fineness regardless of clinker alkali, aggregate reactivity, or soak solution normality.

Ions are electrically charged particles formed when atoms lose or gain electrons. v1260

ASR can be avoided with a proper concrete mix design. A s I scrolled through the few articles and reports I have collected over the past decade regarding alkali-silica reactions, I began to realize I had developed an ignorance to this elusive subject.

The alkali content c160 cement is not a significant factor in affecting the expansion.

For precasters in identified ASR areas, the following methods for new concrete may be the most critical: However, C takes one year to perform when evaluating aggregate reactivity, or two years when evaluating the efficacy of SCMs to mitigate deleterious expansion.


At least, this was the blame at the time. When lithium, sodium or potassium c120 their single outermost electron, they become positively charged. Consequently, the two tests are often run together. Cement mill certificates contain information that can prove useful for tracking asstm in your concrete and controlling variability in your mix design.

The cracks radiate from the interior of the aggregate out into the surrounding paste. In addition to discovering ASR, he was the first to explain that expansion was negligible when the alkali content satm the cement was below 0.

ASTM C Potential Alkali Reactivity of Aggregates | CTLGroup

You have just begun the journey into understanding your own materials as they relate to ASR. That, honestly, is about as simple as I can explain this reaction.

These empty voids, when created, allow the gel to migrate into the cracks. For ASR to occur, four things must be present: Keep in mind that some cements contain a higher proportion of potassium sulfate K 2 SO 4 than sodium sulfate Na 2 SO 4.

Then simply check on them periodically and record your results. This new ASTM standard and related AASHTO provisional standard provides detailed protocols and guidelines using previous ASR testing data, petrography and historical performance to provide a prescriptive decision-making process for mitigation.

This test exposes specimens to a solution of sodium hydroxide NaOH.

The effects of clinker alkali content, aggregate reactivity, and sodium hydroxide NaOH solution concentration on the mortar expansion test results were also studied. C is used as an initial screening test for aggregates and C determines the effectiveness of the SCM being considered to moderate the aggregate activity.

Comments Frank, Great article that gives a simplified overview of ASR, expansion testing, and mitigation techniques.

ASTM C Standard

Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Publications. Ask your aggregate provider first for test results before contacting a laboratory. If ASR has been identified by the specifying authority within the region, it is recommended that precast producers perform long-term testing on concrete samples. Knowing sstm is essential to understand what needs to be done to mitigate this destructive process.


Great article that gives a simplified overview of ASR, expansion testing, and mitigation techniques. Map cracking, also known as three-point cracking, can cause other issues as well, such as shrinkage. Mitigation methods can be split into those methods suitable for new concrete and those that can be used for existing structures. Asstm is, if you have questions about the durability of your concrete, save some samples and leave them exposed to the elements. As stated earlier, many precasters will not have issues with ASR.

Alkali metals, for example, which are found in the far left column of the periodic table, have a single electron in their outermost band. Clinker alkali had no or little effect on moderately reactive aggregate; whereas it had considerable effect on highly reactive aggregate. When siliceous aggregate is attacked by an alkali solution, it is converted to a viscous alkali silicate gel.

The same goes for calcium, but since it is in the second column of the periodic table, it must lose two electrons for this to happen.

Your email address will not be published. Signs of ASR are typically random map-cracking and spalled concrete. Stanton, began his research on a few of these structures and found an expansive reaction between cement and aggregate taking place. Regardless, here is a list aztm key ASR points for precasters to know: Skip to main content. Petrographic examination can conclusively identify ASR.