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In his opinion, the antique civilization was closed in itself whereas the West European civilization tended to expand, which resulted in the creation of colonial empires. The country’s development was also impeded by the long economic stagnation: In particular, there are historical records of the existence in VII century B.

In the second half of XI century, the Sichuan province continued to use tszyaotszy, which functioned mostly as paper money. The th day of the month ofSebit January Though the interest rate is not specified in this record, other similar documents have a clause: The point of view of K.

Prison Service tabela amortyzacji: However at the study of the origin of credit operations in Mesopotamia, it is important not to overestimate the role of temples as depositaries of values and money, comparing them with later time banks, because credit activity was constantly state supervised. The traditions of the Islamic credit instruments were forgotten and replaced by the European weksel.

Under the influence of the Muslim countries’ merchants in XIII century, the West opened for itself the weksel, which after the Crusades spread throughout 29 the Mediterranean. The debt agreement text shows that two persons entered into the partner’s contract a prototype of future commenda.

When Rome fell, the church rejected its cultural heritage as pagan and uncongenial to Christian Europe. Having studied these documents, R. Gradually, functions of tszyaotszy and tszyaoin expanded and they, like the weksel, began to be used for credit drawing under state control. Having considered the main theories of the weksel origin, we shall dwell upon the classification of its historical periods.


The argentaria, who received recipit such offers, became the third party’s direct debtor. The assertion that the West European weksel was a direct consequence of the development of credit operations in the ancient World seems quite logical at first sight.

Richard Grashoff put forward the most plausible concept of the influence of Muslim merchants on the formation of the West European weksel. After the sale of goods, a problem of sending profits home arose. Interest-free debt obligations were also popular, which were connected with the circumstances of loan granting. Kohler’ s works covered some aspects of the debt obligation institution in the Islamic law.

Weksel by Renata Trancygier on Prezi

Due to the high profitability of these financial tools, they were monopolized by the state. They received a corresponding amount from representatives of the local administration in the provinces. It was brought about by the merge of old local traditions with methods of ancient Greek trapezits.

Armenians were mediators between the Muslim world and Byzantium, especially in the center of the Black Sea trade, as Trebizond Trabzon. Library of Congress Control Number: This explains why the author has used the concept of Weksel as a generic name for this financial instrument which is absent in the English language. Endemann, who stated that the weksel can not be regarded as a legal form, which came to us fi-om the ancient period.

Office of the Polish Securities and Exchange Commission.

Movchanovsky wrote that although medieval Italy is thought to be the weksel native country, it was known in Greece, Mesopotamia, Judea and other states. These documents can be considered written debt obligations, which authorized their holder to demand the specified amount at wekkslowy specified time. Historians of the French school A. Therefore, heavy copper coins were used during two millennia in China, though their transportation always caused problems.


Mainly members of the aristocracy took loans. In such conditions, the Kuropean colonial expansion began, after which China lost its world power position for a long time. Gradually, wwekslowy issue of tszyaotszy credit documents became the main function of guifans, called tszyaotszy pu— “tszyaotszy shops” in the Sichuan province.

Słownik polsko-angielski terminologii prawniczej

Macleod, in the number of circulated debt documents totaled 1, ounces of silver; in this sum increased to 2, ounces and in — up to 5, ounces. The most interesting is the following debt obligation sample of Hammurabi tsar’s period: Professional usurers, or sarrafs, dealt with money operations money exchange and loan granting in the markets of the Muslim world cities.

Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants kanciarz: As a whole, the Muslim East greatly differed from medieval Europe by the society’s social stmcture, because the Arab Caliphate had many densely-populated cities— the important trade centers.

State legal person penitencjarny: Exchange Court POL termin przedawnienia: It shall be considered a logical consequence of the development of trade-economic relations.

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He considered their use as a reason for disorders and problems, when tszyaotszy emitters refijsed to exchange them for metal money. Such practices did not always take qekslowy, because letters were transferred through the sent wdkslowy captain, who intentionally or inadvertently could not to submit them to the addressee.

Usually bankers were used for these purposes. Bogaert convincingly proved that deposits in ancient Greek banks and Pasion’s bank were investments and intended for receiving interest.